Erythromelalgia is a rare neurovascular disorder characterized by intermittent episodes of intense burning pain, redness, and heat in the extremities, particularly the hands and feet. The name “erythromelalgia” is derived from the Greek words “erythros” meaning red, “melos” meaning limb, and “algos” meaning pain.
During an episode of erythromelalgia, affected areas typically become red, swollen, and extremely warm to the touch. The pain can be severe and often described as a burning or throbbing sensation. The symptoms are usually triggered or worsened by factors that increase blood flow to the extremities, such as heat, exercise, or elevation.
Erythromelalgia is believed to result from abnormalities in the peripheral nervous system, which controls sensation and motor functions in the limbs. It can be classified into two forms: primary and secondary erythromelalgia.
Primary erythromelalgia, also known as “inherited erythromelalgia,” is caused by mutations in genes that affect ion channels in nerve cells. These mutations lead to increased activity in the nerves, causing abnormal blood vessel constriction and dilation. It is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning a single copy of the mutated gene from either parent can cause the condition.
Secondary erythromelalgia is typically associated with an underlying condition or trigger, such as myeloproliferative disorders, nerve damage, or certain medications. In these cases, erythromelalgia may develop as a result of an underlying disease process or a side effect of treatment.
There is currently no cure for erythromelalgia, and treatment focuses on managing symptoms and minimizing triggers. This may involve lifestyle modifications such as avoiding triggers (e.g., heat, exercise) and keeping the affected limbs cool. Medications such as pain relievers, topical creams, and vasodilators may also be prescribed to alleviate pain and improve blood flow. In severe cases, more advanced therapies, such as nerve blocks or sympathectomy (surgical removal or interruption of nerve fibers), may be considered. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of erythromelalgia.